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Kwak’wala

The series contains records created during a number of visits and projects completed with the Kwakwaka'wakw of Alert Bay.

After meeting David Grubb at the Salish Conferences in the early 1970s, Jensen was invited by Grubb to attend a potlatch on Gilford Island, just off Alert Bay. It was the first potlatch that she attended, and Jensen photographed it in black and white without flash.

Around the same time, Gloria Cranmer Webster began involving her UBC colleague Powell in discussions on the development of a Kwak’wala orthography. The two worked on this project during their breaks at work, with the main end goal to create accurate labels for artefacts at the museum, then located in the basement of the library on campus.

In 1975, after she moved back to Alert Bay, Webster contacted Powell and asked him to assist her in the creation of a language and culture book for Kwak’wala speaking people. Powell travelled to Alert Bay, the first of many trips to do such work. Over the next few years, Powell and Jensen were invited to Alert Bay on a number of occasions to attend potlatches, pole raisings, and other community events. Jensen photographed the events, as well as other aspects of the community such as the day care and band school.

In 1980 Webster, on behalf of the U’Mista Cultural Centre, secured salaries for both Jensen and Powell for one full year. They were hired to produce language and culture books, but in reality helped with many other aspects leading to the opening of the Centre. They rented a house in the village and lived there full time for the year, immersing themselves in the community, and creating a body of records that integrates both work and community life. Jensen had permission to photograph extensively, and these are all included in this series. Powell did linguistic research and worked with teachers from both the band school and the provincial school that were located in the village. Jensen also photographed language and culture lessons to be used in the books being produced. During the year they lived in Alert Bay, they produced 12 language books and a teacher’s manual for U’mista.

In 1982 Powell and Jensen purchased a house in Alert Bay, further cementing their intentions to maintain connections to the community. They continued to attend and photograph events and potlatches between projects.

In 1983 the Kwak’wala Teacher Training Program (KTTP) was developed by Powell and Jensen. The program was a college credit course for local area teachers to train them to lead language and culture lessons in their classes. Jensen and Powell divided their teaching duties, involving another teacher named Joy Wild. The program was successful for two years.

Over the next 20 years many of their visits were social in nature, although they continued to keep a detailed record of the events they attended. In 2001 they completed a CD-ROM for the Learning Kwak’wala series. This project had been ongoing for some time.

The series also contains photographic records of two events that took place outside the realm of the language projects. The Canadian Museum of Civilisation hired Doug Cranmer to carve a new Wakas Pole to replace the decaying version in Stanley Park and contacted Jensen to document the event. The second set of photographs records a trip organised by U’Mista Cultural Centre for scholars and experts to visit Mimkwamlis (Village Island) and T’sadzis’nukwakme’ (New Vancouver).

The records kept in this series consist of recordings, photographs, research notes, draft teaching aids, and copies of completed resources for both children’s education and the KTTP.

The series consists of eleven sub-series:
A. U’Mista research/background
B. Research materials
C. Field notes
D. Publications
E. Kwak’wala teacher training program
F. Kwak’wala CD-ROM project
G. Kwak’wala photographs
H. Potlatch photographs.
I. Wakas pole raising in Stanley Park 1987 photographs
J. Trip to Village Island and Tzatsisnukomi (New Vancouver) photographs 2005.
K. Audio recordings

Northwest Coast groups

Series consists of photographs documenting events in various communities throughout British Columbia and Washington State. These include community photographs in Mt. Currie; the Salish Linguistic Conference in Oman, Washington State; a Robert Davidson Pole Raising; coverage of NWC artifacts at the National Museum of Copenhagen in Denmark; coverage of 1992 Nuxalk Potlatch at Bella Coola for Canadian Museum of Civilization; and photographs of a Haida bentwood box.

Between working on language and education projects, Jensen was often hired by communities to document important events, such as pole-raisings, conferences and potlatches. This series consists of the photographs taken at those events.

Haisla

Series consists of records pertaining to the work Powell has done in Kitamaat Village.

In 2000 Powell began working on the Haisla Traditional Use Study (TUS) with community members Gerald Amos, Rod Bolton and Louise Barbetti. For the TUS, Powell conducted interviews and checked information gathered against textual archival records of the region. The first year of the project was funded by the BC Ministry of Forests, and the second year with a federal grant. At the end of the second year, the study was completed with a report on the Haisla concept of ownership.

Upon completion of the TUS, Powell stayed on with the Haisla to work on outlining ownership in the regional watersheds to be used in Land and Resource Management Planning (LRMP) negotiations. This led to the creation of a book on Haisla land ownership and other traditions, explained using oral histories, to be distributed during a Unity Feast hosted by Chief Steve Wilson.

As he was working on the Haisla Unity Feast Book, Powell started to push for the development of a Haisla curriculum package for the schools in the Kitimat area. In the summer of 2005 Jenson travelled with Powell to Kitlope and photographed many of the areas included in the traditional oral histories of the region. This trip led to the creation of a curriculum booklet called By Punt to the Kitlope. The pamphlet was so successful that Powell was commissioned to create a booklet for the whole of the traditional Haisla territory. Beginning work on this project led to the discovery that most of the Haisla trapline registrations had lapsed or had been passed on to the incorrect person, owing to confusion between the traditional matrilineal method of inheritance and the emerging patrilineal way of passing on title. Powell embarked on a project with Rod Bolton to re-register Haisla traplines in a way that made sense to the community.

In 2006 Vickie “Eden” Robinson was hired to assist Powell in the creation of an archives for the Haisla, based on the material accrued during the time of Powell’s work in Kitamaat.

In 2008 the Kitamaat Village Council signed a two year contract with Powell. He will work for two weeks out of every two months to complete the remaining outstanding projects, including a Haisla place names map, the introduction to Haisla territory.

The series consists of five sub-series:
A. Notebooks
B. Reports
C. Publications and research material
D. Photographs
E. Interviews

Salishan

Series contains records relating to Jensen and Powell’s work with the Salishan language groups in Musqueam and Shalalth territories, and events related to those communities. Although the records were created in a number of villages at different periods of time, Jensen and Powell arranged them together due to the linguistic connection they share.

In 1975 Powell received an Urgent Ethnology grant from the National Museum of Man (Now the Canadian Museum of Civilization) to do linguistic work in Kitamaat. However, this work fell through, and Powell contacted Arnold Guerin of the Musqueam band to discuss using the grant to prepare materials for Guerin’s Hunqum’i’num classes. Together they planned to produce three books: one of phonetics, one on grammar, and one on maths, with Jensen’s assistance in the layout and photography. From reel-to-reel recordings Powell and Paul Thiele of the UBC Library for the Blind produced cassettes to accompany the books. Only the first book was completed as planned, but Powell adapted the notes they had already taken to create two books for younger children. All of this resulted in Musqueam Language: Book 1 and Hunq’um’i’num for Kids: Books 1 & 2. Three years later in 1978 Leona Sparrow hired Jensen on grant money to teach a black and white photography course.

In 1989 the principal of the Shalalth School asked Powell to work with the band on language books. With Harold Oldman and Bev Frank he compiled materials for two books, which were not published. He also completed an alphabet sheet for the community to use.

Series also includes photographs taken by Jensen in 2003 of a ceremony returning city land to the Musequeam near Vanier Park.

Series comprises four sub-series:
A. Field notes and research
B. Publications
C. Musqueam photographs
D. Salishan audio recordings
E. Squamish photographs

Book 10, tape 2: Learning Kwak'wala Series

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 10: Workbook and accompanies Book 7: This One – That One, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 32-49; Side B: pages 50-59. Recorded on both sides.

Book 11, tape 2: Learning Kwak'wala Series

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 11: Workbook, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 36-59, on page 39, "Indian" is used for the English translation of a sentence, skips the review on pages 51-54 and ends with the days of the week and the months. Recorded only on side A, no sound on side B.

Book 11, tape 1: Learning Kwak'wala Series

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 11: Workbook, and accompanies Book 8: Here and There, and it features Margaret Cook, Agnes Cranmer, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 4-22, the audio for page 13 includes examples not listed in the workbook, skips from page 15 to page 20, stop midway through the exercises on page 22; Side B: page 22-35, continues from the exercises on page 22, in the exercise for page 35 the last question uses "Indian Dancer" for the English translation of the sentence. Recorded on both sides.

Book 9, tape 2: Learning Kwak'wala Series

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 9: Workbook and accompanies Book 6: Saying Everyday Things, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 33-57, continues from the rest of the exercise on page 33, and skips the game portions of the workbook. While Jay Powell says that the answers for the game portions are on side B, no audio was recorded on that side. Recorded on Side A, no sound on Side B.

Book 10, tape 1: Learning Kwak'wala Series

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 10: Workbook, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 5-17, the exercise for page 13 in the book is different from the tape's version (with the exercise on page 14 according to the tape), and the pages on the tape are ahead by one from the workbook; Side B: pages 18-31. Recorded on both sides.

Book 9, tape 1: Learning Kwak'wala Series

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala Book 9: Workbook and accompanies Book 6: Saying Everyday Things, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 4-15; Side B: pages 16-27, 32-33. Recorded on both sides, : Side A stops early near the end of the exercise on page 15; skips game portions of the workbook; Side B stops early halfway through the exercise on page 33. Recorded on both sides.

Book 7, tape 2: Learning Kwak'wala

Item consists of a recording of Learning Kwak'wala: Book 7 This One That One, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 26-40, starts with exercises for buying something that is or is not in sight, and continues with who something is for when they are or are not present, the grammar for doing something and the subject is either present or absent, past tense forms, future tense forms, pointer words, action words without objects, and action words that take objects; Side B: pages 40-57, continues past tense exercises on page 40, and covers how to say and adjective does not apply to someone, when someone is not doing something, the words for very and really, positive and negative answer patterns, grammar to ask what someone is doing, and what someone did in the past. Recorded on both sides.

Book 8, tape 2: Learning Kwak'wala

Item consists of part 2 of a recording of Learning Kwak’wala: Book 8 Here & There, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 25-33 covers where people are, when they arrived and where items are, Agnes Cranmer provides another word for Vancouver in Kwak’wala that is not listed on page 27; Side B: pages 33-43 covers the locations of items in or on an object ad provides a distinction between small and larger locations. Recorded on both sides, page numbers in the audio are ahead by one and two page numbers from the physical workbook, and the list of vocabulary is in a slightly different order than the workbook. Recorded on both sides.

Book 8, tape 1: Learning Kwak'wala

Item consists of part 1 a recording of Learning Kwak'wala: Book 8 Here & There and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 4-13, and covers singular and plural endings, where someone is going, and where someone went; Side B: pages 14-24, continues how to express where some one is and what they are doing, and covers when someone is going somewhere, and how to tell the time. Recorded on both sides.

Book 6, tape 2: Learning Kwak'wala Series, Saying Everyday Things

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 6: Saying Everyday Things, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 27-42, continues with the exercises on page 27, and covers the future tense, the past tense, plural we endings distinguishing between ones that include or exclude someone, plural you form, the forms of plural they that distinguish between whether the group is present or absent, and the grammar to say "to eat"; Side B: pages 43-54, and continues with the exercises for the verb "to eat, and covers yes/no dialogues, and the grammar for "do," "am," and "very," and stops halfway through the vocabulary on page 54. Jay Powell mistakenly introduces the tape as side one, but begins where side stopped. Recorded on both sides.

Book 7, tape 1: Learning Kwak'wala Series, This One, That One

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 7: This One, That One, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 4-12. covers sentences with objects and pointer words, using these forms with different verb tenses, plural subjects, referring to people who are present or absent, stops just before the English translation for the last sentence on page 12.; Side B: pages 13-26, continues with the exercises on page 13 and covers the we "including you" and we "not including you" forms, other verbs that take objects an their present, past, and future forms, and other pointer words, stops midway through the examples on page 26. Recorded on both sides.

Book 6, tape 1: Learning Kwak'wala Series, Saying Everyday Things

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 6: Saying Everyday Things, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 6-15, covers how someone is and what they are doing,; Side B: pages 16-26, covers how someone is and what they are doing, the future tense, and the past tense. Recorded on both sides.

Book 4: Learning Kwak'wala, Dogs, Cats and Crows

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 4: Dogs, Cats and Crows, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 33 and 4-13, begins with the Kwak’wala alphabet and covers numbers, the names of animals, how to express if someone does or does not have an animal, how to describe animals; Side B: pages 12-29, continues with farm animals and covers woodland animals, birds, sea animals and items found on beaches, and how to express hunger. Recorded on both sides.

Book 5: Learning Kwak'wala The Sounds of Kwak'wala

Item consists of a recording of Learning Kwak'wala: Book 5 The Sounds of Kwak'wala, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 5-28, covers the names of most of the Kwak'wala speaking peoples and their dialects, the Kwak'wala alphabet, how to pronounce vowels, consonants, the glottal stop, and the barred Side B: pages 29-52, continues with how to pronounce the barred L, and covers the rest of the consonants, back consonant sounds, rounded consonant sounds, explosive consonant sounds, and double letter sounds, one English translation on page 33 refers to the cedar bark daces as "Indian dancing," also the English translation for someone of African descent on page 45 uses the word "Negro." Recorded on both sides.

Book 3: Me & My Clothes, Learning Kwak'wala

Item consists of a recording of the Learning Kwak’wala book 3, Me & My Clothes, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak’wala; Side A: pages 4-26 , goes over parts of the body, whether or not they hurt, types of clothes, who the items belong to, where items are, different types of hats, colors, if the clothes are new, and numbers, and clothing worn at ceremonies (the vocabulary is on page 26 but the audio says pages 24-25 have the list) audio stops abruptly after the list. ; Side B: pages 24, 28-30, goes over the types of Kwakwa̱ka̱ʼwakw dances and how well someone can perform them, and the grammar to describe things "right at hand" and things "further away but visible, briefly refers to Kwakwa̱ka̱ʼwakw dances as "Indian Dances" in the English translation of the sentences. While Jay Powell says that the rest of the tape is a recording for Book 5, there was no other audio after that point. Recorded on both sides.

Book 1: My Village, My House

Item consists of a recording of Learning Kwak'wala: Book 1 My Village My House, and it features Agnes Cranmer, Margaret Cook, and Jay Powell engaging in vocabulary and grammar exercises in the workbook, Jay Powell asks the questions in English and Agnes Cranmer and Margaret Cook give the response in Kwak'wala; Side A: pages 36, 4-18 begins with the Kwak'wala alphabet, and covers the vocabulary for the types of houses and villages, places in the villages their locations with a focus on Alert Bay and surrounding villages, where someone is going, asking what something is, things found at the breakwater, things found at the grocery store and how to express when someone wants something, things found in a school and phrases used in a school setting, vocabulary for things found in nature and how to describe the weather, for the English translation of bak'wam "Indian" is used; Side B: pages 19-33, and covers things used when camping and where things are in the camp, parts of a house and things found there, grammar for who owns a house, vocabulary associated with cooking, eating, and the kitchen, items found in the living room, items found in the bathroom, things in the bedroom, numbers and how to say how many houses and boats there are. Also begins book 2 with some of the vocabulary for family members, but this is also covered in the tape specific to book 2. Recorded on both sides.

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